Hierapolis – Pamukkale

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 9.12.1988 List Reference: 485 Criteria: Natural/ Cultural   SACRED LAND CLAD IN WHITE According to the legend that spread the mystery of Hierapolis to the wide world, an ugly shepherd girl, fed Click More »

Göreme National Park and the Rock Site of Cappadocia

Cappadocia Baloon   Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 6.12.1985 List Reference: 357 Criteria:Natural/ Cultural   DESIGNED BY NATURE: CAPPADOCIA Cappadocia, which was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 on natural and cultural criteria, Is Click More »

Selimiye Mosque and it’s Social Complex

EDIRNE Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 27.06.2011 List Reference: 1366 Criteria : Cultural A Master work of Classical Ottoman Architecture Edirne was the capital of the Ottoman Empire prior to the Click More »

Nemrut Mountain

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 6.12.1987 List Reference: 448 Criteria: Cultural   THE SUN RISES AND SETS WITH A UNIQUE MAJESTY AT NEMRUT MOUNTAIN! The Nemrut mountain side with the tumulus containing the tomb of King Antiochus Click More »

Historic Areas of Istanbul

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 6.12.1985 List Reference: 356 Criteria: Cultural   Love of Continents: ISTANBUL The historical areas of Istanbul, which has been the capital of three great empires, were inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage Click More »

Hattusa The Capital City of Hittites

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 28.11.1986 List Reference: 377 Criteria: Cultural   OPEN-AIR MUSEUM Hattusha, which was the capital of the Hittite Empire during antiquity, has been in the List of World Heritage since 1986 on cultural Click More »

Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 6.12.1985   List Reference: 358 Criteria: Cultural     THE MOSQUE WHERE STONES WERE DRESSED WITH LOVE   The first Turkish building inscribed to UNESCO’s World Heritage List, the Great Mosque and Click More »

City of Safranbolu

Date of Inscription to the World Heritage List: 17.12.1994 List Reference: 614 Criteria: Cultural   ORIGINAL EXAMPLE OF THE TRADITIONAL Safranbolu, an Anatolian city that brings history to life through its mosques, market, neighbourhoods, streets and original houses, was inscribed Click More »

Turkey in World Heritage

Unesco World of Heritage List   Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.   Click More »


Hatay: Located at Turkey’s southern tip, Hatay is a center of civilization abounding in historical and cultural legacies in every corner. The city is positioned at the geographical location connecting Anatolia the Middle East and has an incomparable historical heritage Click More »


Sakarya: is one of Turkey’s fastest developing cities surrounded by a lush green landscape abounding in natural wonders. With a history dating back to the 8th century, the city has been one of the main settlements of major empires.  Naturally, Click More »


Van: Turkey’s sixth largest city and cultural legacy rich in history, monuments, natural beauty and unique flavors One of the border cities of Turkey, Van welcomes visitors from all over the world particularly for its culture and winter tourism. The Click More »


Rize is blessed with the most beautiful nature that has been preserved over the centuries. The fresh air of Rize has a regenerative effect on you with every breath you take. Located in the greenest area of Turkey, the Eastern Click More »

Turkey Outlets and cheap shopping addresses

Turkey Outlets and cheap shopping addresses in Turkey Shopping is an indispensable part of our daily life. Outlet shops have become the addresses for cheaper shopping. Many brands manufacture cheaper products especially for their outlets. List of some outlet center Click More »


Balıkesir: Blessed with numerous islands where lush green forests stretch along the shores of the infinite sea, Balıkesir province is also the habitat of abundant olive groves. Founded by the Mysians in ancient times, Balıkesir has been one of the Click More »


Amasya:  The city where the Sultans’ sons were educated and the legendary city where Ferhad had to mine the mountains to reunite with his beloved Shirin, Amasya has been one of the major cities of many civilizations since the ancient Click More »


Mersin Mersin: One of the warmest and most beautiful cities of the Mediterranean region that can be visited for its authentic flavors and beautiful beaches any time of the year. Mersin is one of the most developed cities of the Click More »


Burdur Burdur: Located in the western part of the Mediterranean Region, Burdur is a major city where scenic beauties meet with historical archaeology Settled for the first time in 7000 BC, Burdur has been home to many civilizations and ancient Click More »


Yalova: Surrounded by the Marmara Sea, Yalova is a peaceful and relaxing city rich in thermal springs and abundant nature. It is estimated that Yalova was founded in the 7th century BC by Bithynians from Thrace. Yalova is rich in Click More »


Karabük Karabük is situated on an important trade route between Amasra on the coast and central Anatolia. Karabük is a town and the capital district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Karabük was built in the 1930s as the seat of the iron and steel Click More »


As interest in nature oriented tourism activities rises, sports practiced without harming nature has gained importance. Rafting is one of such sport.

For centuries mankind has been attracted by the beauty of rivers and turned them into sources of life. Today, he is in need of challenging their exuberance, pitting body and mind against this natural force.

The birth of rafting doubtlessly began when man first grasped a branch floating on a river. Today, it is a popular sport in the Western world, practiced in rapid rivers with 4 to 12 people on inflated boats made of thick latex material, navigating them requires a combination of strength, presence of mind and physical and psychological endurance. The only protection the sportsmen have in this struggle against nature is life vests and helmets.

Arriving at the goal is the ultimate fulfillment after struggling against the wild current of a river. Witnessing the unspoiled nature of the river and it’s banks is the greatest pleasure that one experiences with rafting.

Many rivers in Turkey are suitable for rafting and canoe sports. Besides the river Coruh, the Firtina, Berta, Barhal, Oltu and Harsit Rivers in the Black Sea Region and the Göksu, Köprücay, Manavgat and Dragon Rivers, as well as the Cehennem Stream in the Mediterranean Region are excellent routes.

Rafting is practiced with no harm to nature and without leading to over construction or pollution – It is truly nature friendly.

The Great Adventure, the Most Exciting of Sports…

Speleological Potential Of Turkey

About one third of Turkey is underlain by carbonate rocks. The intense karstification is spread almost all over Turkey. It is found particularly in the regions of the Taurus Mountain Range, in Northwest Anatolia, in Konya closed basin and in Southeastern Anatolia. Karstification is present both at high altitudes (over 2000 m.) and also it is known to exist at elevations below the sea level, such as Ovacik submarine springs, Kas – Kalkan submarine springs and the Mediterranean region coastal springs.

Turkey is thoroughly located in the Mediterranean sector of the Alpine orogenic belt. The Alpine orogeny and the following epirogenic movements in Turkey have been important factors in karstification.

According to Eroskay and Günay (1979), four karst regions can be differentiated in Turkey Taurus region, Central Anatolia region Southern Anatolia region, and Northwest Anatolia and Thrace region.

TAURUS REGION: This is the most important and largest karst region in Turkey. Taurus mountain ridges can be identified as the Alp’s extension in Anatolia. It begins at the Aegean coast, continues through northeast of the Mediterranean sea to Iran and over eastern Anatolia. In this region between the Mediterranean coast and central Anatolia the width of carbonate units is mostly 200 km along the Taurus mountains, and the peaks of the sharp limestone hills are as high as 2500-3000 meters. The stratigraphy of the region contains different units from Cambrian to recent age. There are some parotocton metamorphits. Mesozoic limestones and dolomites occur in over 1000 m. thick layers. The evolution of the ophiolitic melange in the Late Cretaceous exists as an impervious base or cover according to the stratigraphical and structural position of the carbonate units. Important caves mostly exist along these contact lines.

CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION: Central Anatolian region, which is located in the north of Taurus belt, seems a typical closed basin, morphologically bounded with high mountains. The average elevation is around 1200 m. The recrystallized hard limestones of Jurrasic and Crataceous age, which bounded the basin on the south and west, are the extension of Taurus. The ophiolite settlement in the late Crataceous overlies the older carbonate units. The Neogene units, which cover large areas in the basin, are mostly on ophiolitic basement. Sometimes they are in contact with older limestones. Neogene limestone is locally called as Obruk limestone. The collapsed dolines in the basin which are called obruk, are the typical karst features.

SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA REGION: Considering the regional geology at the south of the Taurus belt, marginal folds and stable platforms units have been differentiated. In the marginal folds belt, karst has been developed mostly in the Midyat limestone of Eocen age. Gercüs or older impervious units underlie the Midyat limestone, as Korudag uplift. Sometimes carbonates of Mardin group of Cretaceous age crop out. Stable platform units are located at the south of marginal folds. It is the typical plateau-shaped smooth area of southeast Anatolia. In these region, large caves like the Taurus belt are rare.

NORTHWEST ANATOLIA AND THRACE REGION: In these region, limestone blocks covers limited areas when compared with other regions. In the Thrace part, Eocen limestone which lies along the southern margin of Istranca massif, Aegean part, Permian- Mesozoic limestones which overlie the older metamorphic massifs and Western Black Sea part Jurassic-Cretaceous flysch formations are important karstic units.

Extracted from Günay – Eroskay (1979).


“Turkish Cave Research Association” has been established on April 1964. Activities has been carried under basic principles and aims such as general research, classification, scientific studies and touristic visits. Between the years 1964 – 1980 while representation of Turkey has been made at the international speleology platforms, also research activities has been undertaken with the French, Italian and English. In the meantime, as the Association we have participated in the activities carried at Cennet, Cehennem, Insuyu, Narlikuyu, Damlatas and Yalandünya caves to be opened to tourism. After 1980, researches were made with more weight given to the sports side of caving. During this term, more than fifty caves have been taken under research, maps have been prepared and the majority of these researches and activities has been published in the Association’s bulletin. Furthermore, these activities have been made public through the exhibitions and meeting, conferences and with this aim, together with the Turkish Radio Television-TRT – Documentary of the Turkish Caves; Altinbesik, Indere, Tulumtas caves documentary programmes has been prepared. Right now, activities are being carried at the Central Taurus mountain region range.


The Cave Research Project, operating since 1979 under the Directorate of the Institute of Mineral Research (M.T.A.), has completed the study of 150 caves of various sizes, despite shortages in personnel and equipment. The goal of the project is to determine the economical potential of caves rather than discovering the largest ones. The other aim is to form an inventory of Turkish caves. In accordance with the goals mentioned above, most of the research is concentrated in touristical areas or in karstic regions affected by water shortage.


is a club formed by the students of the university. Activities are pursued on both sportive and scientific aspects of speleology for over 16 years. Though their study focuses mostly on the Zonguldak – Kastamonu region. They are also exploring and surveying caves in other regions of Turkey. Until now, over 80 unknown caves are explored.